Multicultural Counseling-a Review of the Literature: Findings and Recommendations


  • Faten Ahmed Skafi Lebanese University


Adaptive models, Measurement;, Multicultural counseling competencies, Process-oriented models, Skill-based models, training


The importance of multicultural counseling has been widely recognized and discussed. Counselors must beaware of multiple cultures when dealing with multicultural clients. This paper focuses on an in-depth literature review ofcounseling effectiveness that can be improved by reviewing previous studies that historically analyzed multiculturalcounseling practices. More specifically, the literature review may frame findings from previous studies examining gaps inmulticultural counseling competencies. Most of these studies are based on effectiveness definitions and competencies ofcross-cultural counseling. So, this paper highlights the competencies of multicultural counseling in the world, identifyingstrengths, weaknesses and challenges using a narrative literature review method in order to continue to make meaningfulcontributions to the profession, bridge gaps and begin to develop a strong competency base for the future of MCC. Inaddition to some recommendations that deserve further research for future studies.


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How to Cite

Skafi, F. A. (2023). Multicultural Counseling-a Review of the Literature: Findings and Recommendations. Proceedings of Siliwangi Annual International Conference on Guidance and Counselling, 1, 1–11. Retrieved from